The bone graft in a dental implant is a material that helps in regenerating new bone in a particular region or helps in fixing the problem in your bone or joint.
The bone graft material can be derived from your body(Autograft), from a donor(Allograft), from different species(Xenograft), or completely synthetic. In which autograft and allograft are majorly used in dentistry.
The autologous or autogenous bone graft is something derived from your body, the bone will be derived from non-essential places like the angle of the mandible or chin bone. When performing a bone block replacement this graft is always preferred because the graft rejection risk is very low as it’s derived from your body.
The allograft is derived from another human ( mostly cadavers), the bone is typically sourced from a bone bank.
Three types of allograft are present:
A xenograft is derived from the bone of different species.
The synthetic bone graft is made of ceramics such as hydroxyapatite(HA) and tricalcium phosphate, they have an organic matrix ratio that is similar to human bone.
The grafts placed on the bone acts in the following ways to generate new bone:
Osteoconduction: the material acts as a passive matrix scaffolding new bone to cover itself
Osteoinduction: The molecule in this material will convert cells in the neighboring region into osteoblast which inturn will be converted to new bone.
Osteogenesis: The material itself will turn in to osteoblastic cells and form new bone
These grafts are used individually or combined to guide new bone growth towards the desired region and it’s completely controllable, it’s used around the implant to facilitate new bone growth and increase the stability of an implant.