|Comparison of Different Types of Fixed Appliance|
|Conventional metal braces||ceramic braces||self-ligating braces (metal)||self-ligating braces (ceramic)|
|Treatment duration||moderate||slow||comparatively fast||comparatively fast|
|Bad breath||Yes, must maintain||Yes, must maintain||Yes, must maintain||Yes, must maintain|
preventive, interceptive, and surgical are the three types of orthodontics.
Preventive orthodontics deals with the preventive measure taken to avoid teeth malposition and correction of facial jaw growth if needed.
This also deals with the elimination of habits causing the malalignment of teeth and jaw through habit breaking appliances.
Preventive orthodontics mainly focus on children and young adults within the growth phase( bone growth).
Growth modifying appliance change the pattern and growth rate of teeth and jaw, they are also called the functional appliance.
The functional appliance may be removable or fixed and can be intraoral(inside mouth) or extra-oral(outside mouth).
A removable functional appliance is suggested to the patient who has more bone growth and a fixed functional appliance is suggested to the patient with very minimal bone growth, the fixed functional appliance is done to make the treatment progress faster before the cessation of growth.
The functional appliance is suggested considering the growth value, children will have a high bone growth, the young adult will have low growth and adults will no growth. The growth of an individual is analyzed with a hand-wrist radiograph, the bone fusion is calculated and approximate growth value is interpreted.
There are different functional appliance for every problem, such as:
Headgear: used to correct jaw discrepancy.
Twin block: used to correct lower jaw with delayed growth.
Face bow: used to correct upper jaw with delayed growth.
Arch expander: used to expand upper jaw to have a normal u shaped arch.
The habit of a child can be altered or eliminated with this habit breaker, like functional appliance every habit has a different habit breaker.
Tongue crib: to avoid thumb sucking and tongue thrusting.
Oral screen: this appliance is used to reduce or eliminate mouth breathing.
So the best time to visit a dentist for any tooth or jaw mal-function will be from 8years for females child and 9 years for a male child.
Braces treatment that plans and eliminates the existing and forthcoming dental malocclusion, the interceptive braces treatment is the traditional braces treatment that involves with clips and braces for the existing dental problems like closing the gaps, teeth crowding and pushing the teeth back.
Your dentist finds the problem, analyze, and start the treatment for the malocclusion. Elimination of habits or correction of the skeletal problem is not involved.
Surgical orthodontics is a braces treatment that is associated with a surgical procedure to correct severely malformed teeth and facial bone. The bone malformation can be changed using appliances before growth cessation if growth is completed the treatment can be continued surgically.
The surgical orthodontics must be planned only after 18 yrs of age both for male and female patients.
The normal intercuspation of teeth is known as occlusion, the intercuspation means contact between the teeth cusp and grooves.
Other than normal is termed as malocclusion.
In recent dentistry, Angle’s classification is taken generally for classifying malocclusion.
This classification is based on the cusp and groove contact of the upper 1st molar and lower 1st molar.
Class I: the front cusp of 1st molar contacts the groove of the lower 1st molar.
Class II: when upper 1st molar contacts are distal to class I,
There are two subdivision
Class II div 1: molar relation with upper teeth proclained forward
Class II div 2: molar relation with upper teeth retroclained backward
Class III: when upper 1st molar contact is medial to class I
other dental malocclusion terminology
Overjet: The distance from the tip of the lower front incisor to upper front incisor teeth, in the general condition the upper teeth is always 2 to 3mm forward from lower teeth. The reverse or negative overjet is an abnormal condition where the lower incisor teeth are in front of upper incisor teeth.
End-on bite is when the incisor tip of upper jaw contacts with the incisor tip of the lower jaw.
Overbite: This is vertical overlapping upper incisor to the lower incisor teeth, the overlapping must be 2 to 3mm. The lower incisor its always inside the upper incisor in normal condition. Deep bite is when there is an excessive increase in overbite more than 3mm.
Crossbite: it’s the lateral overlapping of teeth, this can be due to inward movement of upper teeth or outward movement of lower teeth, there are two crossbites
Anterior: negative overjet is also known as an anterior crossbite.
Posterior: a condition when upper molars, premolar or both have gone in
lower molars or premolar or both have moved out in the horizontal direction.
The crossbite can be due to dental or skeletal or both.
Scissor bite: a condition when the entire upper posterior teeth are outward and entire lower posterior teeth are inwards.
Open bite: when there is no contact between the upper and lower incisor and space is present.
Proclination: forwardly placed teeth in a horizontal direction.
Retroclination: backward placed teeth in a horizontal direction.
Protrusion: excessive crown show from the gingival level.
Crowding: commonly mentioned as irregular teeth, when teeth are places in a criss-cross manner in the jaw, this is because of very low accommodative space in the jaw for the entire set of teeth or teeth size are larger to get accommodated within the normal jaw space.
Spacing: when spaces or gaps are present in between the teeth.
This is because the jaw size is larger than normal or tooth size smaller than normal.
Midline diastema: spacing present in between upper central incisor teeth.
The bone deformity is calculated with jaw relation, jaw relation is the position of lower jaw to the upper jaw. There are three types of jaw relation
Class I: it’s normal relation of the jaw, the upper jaw is forward and the lower jaw is slightly back of the upper jaw with normal overjet and overbite.
Class II: when the lower jaw is visibly more back than upper jaw(increased overjet), then it’s class 2. It’s caused prognathic maxilla or retrognathic mandible or both.
Class III: when the lower jaw is visibly more forward than upper jaw(reverse overjet), then it’s class 3. It’s caused prognathic mandible or retrognathic maxilla or both.
From the very beginning of clip and braces treatments in dentistry, there are many new findings and inventories to overcome the previous problems faced with aligning the teeth. Today’s orthodontic treatment has become a very simple procedure than complex orthodontic treatment available three decades back, thanks to our pioneers.
The tooth movement is performed continuously by pushing or pulling the teeth, this done by gaining the anchorage from adjacent teeth segments, teeth, or bone.
Every reaction has an equal and opposite reaction, when there is pulling of teeth segment gaining anchorage from the adjacent tooth/ teeth segment, there is some amount of teeth movement of the anchored portion.
Mini implants also know as micro-implants serve as a temporary anchorage device(TAD) to avoid such problems. They are partially embedded into the bone and placed temporarily until the completion of the orthodontic tooth movement.
The micro implant placement is a simple and painless procedure, after placing the micro implant you should maintain it with the application of Chlo–hex gell around the implant, must take the antibiotics and pain killer initially.
If there is redness or yellow color discharge from the implant site you must visit your dentist as soon as possible.