Bone loss is caused by many reasons, the major reasons are, one is tooth damage and the other is periodontitis( gum infection). The bacteria involved in gum infection will eat away the existing bone surrounding the infected gum.
In this, the common bone loss is majorly due to loss of teeth which is left unreplaced. The jawbone shape is preserved due to the constant chewing pressure that is transmitted by the teeth, when the teeth are lost there is no pressure on the jaw bone which indirectly starts resorption. In the first year after tooth loss, there is approximately 25% of bone loss in that particular region and slowly continuous.
The bone which holds the teeth is known as the alveolar bone in dental terms, this is known as the ridge. The ridge collapses slowly after tooth loss, The removal of the first and the second molar from the upper jow worsens the situation, when either one or two teeth are removed there are chances of resorption of bone along with sinus wall expansion, this will further thin the bone in that particular region.
use of dentures
Dental dentures usually accelerate the bone loss, when you wear a denture each time you bite the pressure is distributed over the ridge and not into the bone. This will start slowly resorbing the alveolar bone making the denture loose one fine day.
After fixed bridges
You may wonder why a small space is formed between the fixed bridges and your gum causing food impaction. This is because the space on the tooth removed region continues to reserve. Space continues to increase creating a lot of problems like food impaction and Dental caries in the adjacent teeth.
Associated with periodontitis
As we have already seen, bone loss associated with periodontitis must be cured as soon as possible because in this situation the bone loss is really fast.
After the treatment, you must take on precautionary measures to maintain good and healthy gums.
Bone loss due to bone density
This is a rare case, that can be identified by cone-beam CT, the white the region on the radiograph is denser bone and the radiolucent region is bone with less density. the treatment is very difficult but the study shows that placement of few implants with body design to attract bone will increase bone density in the particular region.
Bone loss associated with the edentulous region
This type can be easily treated by placing artificial teeth that also replaces the root part of the teeth. Dental implants are the best method to replace missing teeth because dental implants usually do not allow bone loss because the Ridge receives pressure in a similar way as the natural teeth and few implant designs facilitate bone growth around them.
Immediate placing dental implants are always a better choice because there is very minimal bone loss after the removal of teeth.
A bone graft may be required if bone loss already present, the height and width of the ridge must be increased to compensate the implant which simulates the natural teeth.
Upper jaw otherwise known as maxilla has more chance for bone loss after tooth removal when maxilla is atrophied severely on the posteriors zygoma implant can help in replacement of teeth and when maxilla is severely atrophied on anterior and posterior then four zygoma implants can help in replacing the missing teeth
It may be also due to hormone imbalance, aging, misaligned teeth, and tumor.
It is a natural process when a tooth is removed it must be replaced as soon as possible otherwise the reduction of bone will be severe when left unreplaced for several years.